Bollettino SPI Vol. 56 (3)

Published in December 2017


  • Larramendi A., Palombo M.R. & Marano F. (2017)

Reconstructing the life appearance of a Pleistocene giant: size, shape, sexual dimorphism and ontogeny of Palaeoloxodon antiquus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae) from Neumark-Nord 1 (Germany)
pp. 299-317


Between 1985 and 1996, approximately 70 individual Palaeoloxodon antiquus specimens were recovered from the lacustrine deposits in the open-cast lignite mine of Neumark-Nord 1 (NN1) in Geiseltal, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany. This study analyses 11 of the most complete skeletons. Because the studied fossil remains were so well preserved, it was possible to determine the elephants’ physical appearance, shoulder height, body mass, sexual dimorphism, ontogenetic growth, and biomechanics. These reconstructions also made it possible to highlight the morphological differences of these straight-tusked elephants against other members of Elephantinae. Some of the most peculiar characteristics of P. antiquus are the morphology of the skull, remarkably long tusks, elongated forelimbs, a massive torso, and a body mass three times that of male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and twice that of extant bush African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Sexual dimorphism of P. antiquus was observed to be more accentuated than in extant elephants, most notably in terms of size di erence. The long-bone epiphyseal fusion pattern indicates that NN1 males continued to grow until their fifties, while females may have completed their growth at an age comparable to that of male African elephants.

Supplementary Online Material 1
Supplementary Online Material 2
  • Bannikov A.F. & Carnevale G. (2017)

Eocene ghost pipe shes (Teleostei, Solenostomidae) from Monte Bolca, Italy
pp. 319-331


Ghost pipe fishes of the family Solenostomidae (Teleostei, Syngnathiformes) are shallow tropical syngnathiforms found today exclusively in the Indo-Pacific where they live associated with seagrass beds and reefs. Presented herein is a revision of the Eocene shes from Monte Bolca, northern Italy, assigned to the family Solenostomidae. The genus †Prosolenostomus Blot, 1980 is excluded from the Solenostomidae and is regarded as aligned to the pipe fish family Syngnathidae. The stem-Solenostomidae †Calamostoma Agassiz, 1833 and †Solenorhynchus Heckel, 1854 are accommodated in the separate subfamily †Solenorhynchinae n. subfam., representing the sister taxon of the extant genus Solenostomus Lacèpede, 1803. It is demonstrated that the correct name of the type and only species of †Calamostoma should be †C. lesiniforme (Volta, 1796) rather than †C. breviculum (Blainville, 1818). The diagnosis of the family Solenostomidae is emended to accommodate the fossil ghost pipe fish genera.

  • Rook L., Cirilli O. & Bernor R.L. (2017)

A Late Occurring “Hipparion” from the middle Villafranchian of Montopoli, Italy (early Pleistocene; MN16b; ca. 2.5 Ma)
pp. 333-339


We report here for the first time the occurrence in the Montopoli large mammal fossil assemblage of a small equid taxon identified as “Hipparion” sp., associated to the monodactyl large horse Equus cf. livenzovensis. This occurrence has been recognised on a specimen that the late De Giuli (1938-1988) identified as Hipparion sp. in unpublished notes available in the archives of the Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory of the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra at the Università degli Studi di Firenze. Although fragmentary, the specimen documents the occurrence of “Hipparion” at the middle Villafranchian (early Pleistocene, ca. 2.5 Ma) site of Montopoli, one of the latest occurrences of an hipparionine horse in western Europe. The western Eurasian “Hipparion” evolutionary history is summarised herein.

  • Bonci M.C., Dagnino D., Mazzini A. & Piazza M. (2017)

The mollusk type-material of Gaetano Rovereto in the “BTP Collection” (Museo di Paleontologia – DISTAV – Università di Genova): the Oligocene types from Mioglia area
pp. 341-357


The present paper examines the types of the gastropod, cephalopod, and bivalve new taxa described by Gaetano Rovereto in the years 1897-1914 from the Oligocene rocks of Mioglia area (Molare Formation and Rocchetta-Monesiglio Formation, Tertiary Piedmont Basin, Southern Piedmont - Central Liguria, NW Italy). These taxa are part of the “Collezione BTP” (BTP Collection) housed at the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita - DISTAV - of the Università di Genova. The Mioglia area collecting sites reported on in Rovereto’s papers have been verified on field. In the Mioglia area, Rovereto identified six new species of gastropods (preserved in the BTP Collection), one of cephalopods (preserved) and 17 new taxa of bivalves (16 preserved, one lost). This paper focuses on six gastropod, one cephalopod and 14 bivalve taxa originally described by Rovereto and presently included in the BTP Collection. As a result of this revision some taxa were confirmed, others were put into synonymy and others have undergone a change of genus attribution.

  • Rossi M.A., Agostini S., Palombo M.R., Angelini I., Caramiello S., Casarin F., Ghezzo E., Marano F., Molin G., Reggiani P., Sangati C., Santello L., Socrate G. & Vinciguerra E. (2017)

Mammuthus meridionalis from Madonna della Strada (Scoppito, L’Aquila): diagnostics and restoration
pp. 359-373


The skeleton of Mammuthus meridionalis (Nesti, 1825), found in 1954 at Madonna della Strada (Scoppito, L’Aquila, central Italy) and exhibited since 1960 in the Spanish Fortress in L’Aquila, has recently undergone a complex diagnostic and restoration project funded by the “Guardia di Finanza” as a contribution to the reconstruction of the city of L’Aquila after the earthquake of 6 April 2009. The specimen was only slightly damaged by the seismic event. The restoration based on a highly integrated multidisciplinary approach, began with a preliminary diagnostic analysis in order to acquire information on the state of preservation of the skeleton and on the dynamic behaviour of the metal supporting frame-skeleton assembly. The restoration was carried out by combining the most common techniques applied in Palaeontology with the most advanced techniques used for the restoration of cultural artefacts. The painstaking restoration enabled the original shape of the skeleton to be restored, revealing the actual shape of the skull and its pathological modifications. Before reassembling the skeleton, a new, correct posture was also defined.

Supplementary Online Material

p. 375


Adunanza dell’Assemblea dei Soci della Società Paleontologica Italiana – Palazzo della Ragione, Strada Vittorio Emanuele 162, Anagni (FR)- 26 Maggio 2017
pp. 377-381


pp. 383-384